William III

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Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk, Пауль Фредерик Лодевейк Vilhelms, Villems III, Willem III, Wilhelm III, Guillaume III,
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William III  was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866.

William was the son of King William II and Anna Pavlovna of Russia.

On the abdication of his grandfather William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange.

On the death of his father in 1849, he succeeded as King of the Netherlands.

William married his cousin Sophie of Württemberg in 1839 and they had three sons, William, Maurice, and Alexander, all of whom predeceased him.

He married Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont in 1879 and they had one daughter Wilhelmina, who succeeded William to the Dutch throne. William III was the last male monarch of the Netherlands until the accession of King William-Alexander on the 30th of April 2013.

William was born on 19 February 1817 in Brussels as son of King William II and Queen Anna Paulowna. In his early years, he served in the military.

He married his first cousin, Sophie, daughter of King William I of Württemberg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, in Stuttgart on 18 June 1839.

This marriage was unhappy and was characterized by struggles about their children. Sophie was a liberal intellectual, hating everything leaning toward dictatorship, such as the army. William was simpler, more conservative, and loved the military.

He prohibited intellectual exercise at home, for which action Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who corresponded with Sophie, called him an uneducated farmer. (His extramarital enthusiasms, however, led the New York Times to call him "the greatest debauchee of the age"]) Another cause of marital tension (and later political tension) was his capriciousness; he could rage against someone one day, and be extremely polite the next.

William loathed the 1848 constitutional changes initiated by his father (William II) and Johan Rudolf Thorbecke. William II and Sophie saw them as key to the monarchy's survival in changing times. William himself saw them as useless limitations of royal power, and would have wished to govern like his grandfather, William I.

He considered relinquishing his right to the throne to his younger brother Henry and later to his older son. His mother convinced him to cancel this action. One year later (1849) William became King upon the death of his father.

King William III repeatedly contemplated abdicating as soon as his eldest son William, Prince of Orange, turned eighteen. This occurred in 1858, but as William was uncomfortable making a decision he remained king. His first act was the inauguration of the parliamentary cabinet of Thorbecke, the liberal designer of the 1848 constitution, whom William loathed.

When the Roman Catholic hierarchy of bishops was restored in 1853 he found growing conservative support and a reason to dismiss his rival. In the first two decades of his reign, he dismissed several cabinets and disbanded the States-General several times, installing royal cabinets which ruled as long as there was support in the elected second chamber of parliament.

In 1856, William unilaterally instituted a new, reactionary constitution for Luxembourg in what has become known as the 'Coup of 1856'.[3] He tried to sell his privately held grand duchy (Nassau) in 1867, leading to the Luxembourg Crisis, which almost precipitated war between Prussia and France. However, the subsequent Second Treaty of London reestablished Luxembourg as a fully independent country.

During his reign, the King became more and more unpopular with his bourgeois-liberal subjects – his whims provoking their resistance and mockery, but remained quite popular with the common man.[4][5]

He was the 963rd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1842, the 777th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1882 and the 72nd Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

In 1877, Queen Sophie died and years of war in the palace came to an end. In the same year, King William announced his intention to marry Eleonore d'Ambre, a French opera singer, whom he ennobled as countess d'Ambroise – without government consent. Under pressure from society and the government, he abandoned these marriage plans.[6][7] In 1879, King William firstly proposed to his niece, the princess Elisabeth of Saxe-Weimar, but finaly decided to marry Princess Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, a small German principality. Some politicians were quite angry, as she was 41 years the king's junior. Emma showed herself, however, as a cordial woman; and when William asked permission from parliament, this was easily granted and the couple were quickly married in Arolsen on 7 January 1879. She was not his first choice. He had previously been considering her older sister, Princess Pauline of Waldeck and Pyrmont, as well as Princess Thyra of Denmark, who had her own private scandalous history.

Emma had a relieving influence on William's capricious personality and the marriage was extremely happy. The last decade was without any doubt the best of his reign.[citation needed] In 1880, Wilhelmina was born. She became heiress presumptive in 1884 after the death of the last remaining son from William's first marriage. Many potential male heirs had died between 1878 and 1884.

King William became seriously ill in 1887. However in 1888, he managed to personally hand over a gold medal of honour to the lifeboat hero Dorus Rijkers, for saving the lives of 20 people.

He died in Het Loo in 1890. Because Wilhelmina had not yet reached adulthood, Emma became regent for her daughter. She would remain regent until Wilhelmina's eighteenth birthday in 1898.

Because the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg could only be inherited through the male Nassau line under the terms of the house-treaty of the House of Nassau, it went to William's 17th cousin once removed (and incidentally Emma's uncle on her mother's side), Adolphe, the Duke of Nassau. His branch of the House of Nassau still governs the Grand Duchy.


Of William III's legitimate children, three reached adulthood, two sons from his marriage to Queen Sophie and one daughter from his marriage to Queen Emma:

  • Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik (1840–1879). Heir apparent to the Throne from 1849 till his death.
  • Willem Frederik Maurits Alexander Hendrik Karel (1843–1850).
  • Willem Alexander Karel Hendrik Frederik (1851–1884). Heir-apparent to the Throne from 1879 till his death.
  • Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria (1880–1962). Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948.


Royal Monogram
  • His Royal Highness Prince William of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau (1817–1840)
  • His Royal Highness The Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau (1840–1849)
  • His Majesty The King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Limburg (1849–1890)

Avoti: wikipedia.org

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        Saistītās personas vārdsSaitesDzimšanas datumsMiršanas datumsApraksts
        1Виллем IIВиллем IITēvs06.12.179217.03.1849
        2Anna PavlovnaAnna PavlovnaMāte18.01.179501.03.1865
        3Wilhelmina Queen of the NetherlandsWilhelmina Queen of the NetherlandsMeita31.08.188028.11.1962
        4Sophie von Oranien NassauSophie von Oranien NassauMāsa08.04.182423.03.1897
        5Alexander  Württemberg, DukeAlexander Württemberg, DukeOnkulis09.09.180404.07.1885
        6Константин ПавловичКонстантин ПавловичOnkulis27.04.177915.06.1831
        7Aleksandrs I RomanovsAleksandrs I RomanovsOnkulis12.12.177719.11.1825
        8Nikolajs I  RomanovsNikolajs I RomanovsOnkulis06.07.179618.02.1855
        9Михаил ПавловичМихаил ПавловичOnkulis08.02.179828.08.1849
        10Maria  PawlownaMaria PawlownaTante04.02.178611.06.1859
        11Екатерина ПавловнаЕкатерина ПавловнаTante10.05.178809.01.1819
        12Елена  ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаTante17.12.178424.09.1803
        13Nikolai  Michailowitsch RomanowNikolai Michailowitsch RomanowBrāļa/māsas dēls14.04.185930.01.1919
        14Pawel  RomanowPawel RomanowBrāļa/māsas dēls03.10.186030.01.1919
        15Aleksandrs III RomanovsAleksandrs III RomanovsBrāļa/māsas dēls10.03.184501.11.1894
        16Мориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийМориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийBrāļa/māsas dēls24.10.182913.05.1907
        17Георгий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийГеоргий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийBrāļa/māsas dēls25.05.185905.12.1909
        18Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановBrāļa/māsas dēls01.06.186030.01.1919
        19Сергей  РомановСергей РомановBrāļa/māsas dēls11.05.185717.02.1905
        20Принц Николай ПетровичПринц Николай ПетровичBrāļa/māsas dēls09.05.184020.01.1886
        21Алексей МихайловичАлексей МихайловичBrāļa/māsas dēls28.12.187502.03.1895
        22Принц Александр  ОльденбургскийПринц Александр ОльденбургскийBrāļa/māsas dēls02.06.184406.09.1932
        23Gawriil RomanowGawriil RomanowBrāļa/māsas dēls15.07.188728.02.1955
        24Großfürst Alexander MichailowitschGroßfürst Alexander MichailowitschBrāļa/māsas dēls13.04.186626.02.1933
        25Duke Constantine  Petrovich of OldenburgDuke Constantine Petrovich of OldenburgBrāļa/māsas dēls09.05.185018.03.1906
        26Igor  KonstantinowitschIgor KonstantinowitschBrāļa/māsas dēls29.05.189418.07.1918
        27Oleg  KonstantinowitschOleg KonstantinowitschBrāļa/māsas dēls15.11.189229.09.1914
        28Евгений Лейхтенбергский РомановскийЕвгений Лейхтенбергский РомановскийBrāļa/māsas dēls27.01.184718.08.1901
        29Georgi  KonstantinowitschGeorgi KonstantinowitschBrāļa/māsas dēls23.04.190307.11.1938
        30Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичBrāļa/māsas dēls10.08.185802.06.1915
        31Николай КонстантиновичНиколай КонстантиновичBrāļa/māsas dēls14.02.185027.01.1918
        32Великий князь Пётр НиколаевичВеликий князь Пётр НиколаевичBrāļa/māsas dēls10.01.186417.06.1931
        33князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийBrāļa/māsas dēls29.02.185203.05.1912
        34Владимир АлександровичВладимир АлександровичBrāļa/māsas dēls10.04.184704.02.1909
        35Nikolajs  NikolajevičsNikolajs NikolajevičsBrāļa/māsas dēls18.11.185605.01.1929
        36Великий Князь Георгий МихайловичВеликий Князь Георгий МихайловичBrāļa/māsas dēls23.08.186330.01.1919
        37Сергей МихайловичСергей МихайловичBrāļa/māsas dēls25.09.186918.07.1918
        38Великий князь Сергей МихайловичВеликий князь Сергей МихайловичBrāļa/māsas dēls07.10.186918.07.1918
        39Сергей АлександровичСергей АлександровичBrāļa/māsas dēls11.05.185717.02.1905
        40Prince Ioann  Konstantinovich of RussiaPrince Ioann Konstantinovich of RussiaBrāļa/māsas dēls05.07.188618.07.1918
        41Михаил Михайлович, Великий князьМихаил Михайлович, Великий князьBrāļa/māsas dēls16.10.186126.04.1929
        42Olga  RomanowaOlga RomanowaBrāļa/māsas meita03.09.185118.06.1926
        43Анастасия МихайловнаАнастасия МихайловнаBrāļa/māsas meita28.07.186011.03.1922
        44Alexandra von  OldenburgAlexandra von OldenburgBrāļa/māsas meita02.06.183825.04.1900
        45Marija Alexandrowna RomanowaMarija Alexandrowna RomanowaBrāļa/māsas meita17.10.185324.10.1920
        46Тереза ОльденбургскаяТереза ОльденбургскаяBrāļa/māsas meita30.03.185219.04.1883
        47Вера КонстантиновнаВера КонстантиновнаBrāļa/māsas meita24.04.190611.01.2001
        48Princess LouisePrincess LouiseBrāļa/māsas meita03.12.183823.04.1923
        49Princis BernhardsPrincis BernhardsZnots29.06.191101.12.2004
        50Pāvils I RomanovsPāvils I RomanovsVectēvs01.10.175423.03.1801
        51Sophie DorotheeSophie DorotheeVecāmāte14.10.175924.10.1828
        52Juliana of the NetherlandsJuliana of the NetherlandsMazmeita30.04.190920.03.2004
        53Frederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeFrederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeVecvectēvs21.01.173223.12.1797
        54Pēteris III RomanovsPēteris III RomanovsVecvectēvs21.02.172817.07.1762
        55Staņislavs PoņatovskisStaņislavs PoņatovskisVecvectēvs17.01.173212.02.1798
        56Katrīna II  LielāKatrīna II LielāVecvecmāte02.05.172917.11.1796
        57Prinzessin Maria Christina der  NiederlandePrinzessin Maria Christina der NiederlandeMazmazmeita18.02.194716.08.2019
        58Aleksandrs II RomanovsAleksandrs II RomanovsBrālēns/māsīca29.04.181813.03.1881
        59Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийBrālēns/māsīca27.07.183113.04.1891
        60Konstantin  Nikolajewitsch RomanowKonstantin Nikolajewitsch RomanowBrālēns/māsīca21.09.182725.01.1892
        61Karl Alexander  August JohannKarl Alexander August JohannBrālēns/māsīca24.06.181805.01.1901
        62Peter von  OldenburgPeter von OldenburgBrālēns/māsīca26.08.181214.05.1881
        63Михаил НиколаевичМихаил НиколаевичBrālēns/māsīca25.10.183218.12.1909
        64Marija Nikolajevna RomanovaMarija Nikolajevna RomanovaBrālēns/māsīca18.08.181921.02.1876
        65Augusta Marie  Luise KatharinaAugusta Marie Luise KatharinaBrālēns/māsīca30.09.181107.01.1890
        66Olga  RomanowaOlga RomanowaBrālēns/māsīca11.09.182230.10.1892
        67Екатерина МихайловнаЕкатерина МихайловнаBrālēns/māsīca16.08.182730.04.1894
        Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick AugustBrālēns/māsīca25.09.180510.04.1806
        69Marie  Sachsen-Weimar-EisenachMarie Sachsen-Weimar-EisenachBrālēns/māsīca03.02.180818.01.1877
        70Gustaw EhrenbergGustaw EhrenbergBrālēns/māsīca14.02.181828.09.1895
        71Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeFrancis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeBrālēns/māsīca28.08.183721.01.1900

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