Created Workers' Defence Committee

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The Workers' Defense Committee (Polish: Komitet Obrony Robotników pronounced [kɔmitɛt ɔbrɔnɨ rɔbɔtɲikuf], KOR) was a Polish civil society group that emerged under communist rule to give aid to prisoners and their families after the June 1976 protests and government crackdown. KOR was an example of successful social organizing based on specific issues relevant to the public's daily lives. It was a precursor and inspiration for efforts of the Solidarity trade union a few years later.

This organization was the first major anti-communist civic group in Poland, as well as Eastern Europe. It was born of the outrage at the government's crackdown in June 1976. Its stated purpose was to create "new centers of autonomous activity." It raised money through sales of its underground publications, through fund-raising groups in Paris and London, and grants from Western institutions.

KOR sent open letters of protest to the communist government and organized legal and financial support for the families of political detainees. The leaders of the organization established an activities and coordination center and offered analysis on workers’ conditions within Poland. They often collaborated with Western journalists on writing and publishing articles. The group worked with sympathetic lawyers to get better representation for striking workers and obtained medical diagnoses from doctors which they presented as evidence of police brutality in court trials. The group smuggled in mimeograph machines to print its underground newsletter, Komunikat, which had a circulation of around 20,000 by 1978.

As a side project of KOR, an underground publishing house called NOWA was founded using mimeograph machines owned by KOR. It printed material critical of the regime and reproduce banned writings from thinkers outside of the Warsaw Pact, such as George Orwell. NOWA had its own print shops, storehouses, and distribution network, and financed itself through sales and contributions.

In the fall of 1977 KOR collaborated with intellectuals in the Warsaw community to establish the Flying University, a series of lectures organized by unofficial student groups to discuss ideas about freedom that could not be debated in public. The government harassed KOR members as it did any other civil society in Poland: beating up and jailing dissidents, infiltrating and interrupting lectures, and conducting searches of dissidents’ houses.

However, KOR became an inspiration for the nation when its efforts finally paid off when the Polish government declared amnesty for jailed strikers in the spring of 1977. In that year, it was renamed to Committee for Social Self-defence KOR (Komitet Samoobrony Społecznej KOR).

KOR published an underground paper, Robotnik ("The Worker"—the same title as Józef Piłsudski's underground paper)


The organization is often forgotten in the wake of Solidarity's success in the 1980s, but KOR remained an important force in bringing down communism in Poland.


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    Name Born / Since / At Died Languages
    1Stanisław BarańczakStanisław Barańczak13.11.194626.12.2014de, en, fr, pl, ru, ua
    2Stefan StarczewskiStefan Starczewski27.05.193502.10.2014pl
    3Jacek  KurońJacek Kuroń03.03.193417.06.2004de, en, fr, pl, ru, ua
    4Jan Józef LipskiJan Józef Lipski25.05.192610.09.1991de, en, fr, pl, ru, ua
    5Wojciech ZiembińskiWojciech Ziembiński22.03.192513.01.2001pl
    6Jerzy AndrzejewskiJerzy Andrzejewski19.08.190919.04.1983de, en, fr, pl, ru, ua
    7Ludwik CohnLudwik Cohn23.06.190214.12.1981pl
    8Józef RybickiJózef Rybicki18.12.190109.05.1986pl
    9Jan ZiejaJan Zieja01.03.189719.10.1991pl
    10Aniela SteinsbergowaAniela Steinsbergowa27.06.189622.12.1988pl
    11Adam SzczypiorskiAdam Szczypiorski10.10.189503.08.1979pl
    12Antoni PajdakAntoni Pajdak07.12.189420.03.1988pl
    13Edward LipińskiEdward Lipiński18.10.188813.07.1986en, pl, ru