Genocide actions against non-russians. 91,900 Kalmyks deported
On 28 December 1943, the Soviet government accused the Kalmyks of collaborating with the Germans and deported the entire population, including Kalmyk Red Army soldiers, to various locations in Central Asia and Siberia.
Within 24 hours the population transfer occurred at night during winter without notice in unheated cattle cars.
According to N. F. Bugai, the leading Russian expert on deportations,
- 4.9% of the Kalmuk population died during the first three months of 1944;
- 1.5% in the first three months of 1945; and
- 0.7% in the same period of 1946.
From 1945 to 1950, 15,206 Kalmuks died and 7843 were born.
The Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was quickly dissolved. Its territory was divided and transferred to the adjacent regions, viz., the Astrakhan and Stalingrad Oblasts and Stavropol Krai. Since no Kalmuks lived there any longer the Soviet authorities changed the names of towns and villages from Kalmyk names to Russian names. For example, Elista became Stepnoi.
It is only one episode of Russian genocide against Kalmyks:
The Kalmyks revolted against Russia in
- 1930 and
On 22 January 1922 Mongolia proposed to migrate the Kalmyks during famine in Kalmykia but Russia refused.
71–72,000 (93,000?; around half of the population) Kalmyks died during the famine.
In March 1927, Soviet deported 20,000 Kalmyks to Siberia, tundra and Karelia.
The Don Cossacks, including the Don Kalmyks, experienced heavy military and civilian losses, either from the fighting itself or from starvation and disease induced by the war. Some argue that the Bolsheviks were guilty of the mass extermination of the Don Cossack people, killing an estimated 70 percent (or 700,000 persons) of the Don Cossack population (Heller and Nekrich, 1988:87).
By the early 18th century, there were approximately 300–350,000 Kalmyks
In January 1771 the oppression of czarist administration forced the larger part of Kalmyks (33 thousands households or approximately 170,000–200,000 people) to migrate to Mongolia.
Ubashi Khan, the great-grandson Ayuka Khan and the last Kalmyk Khan, decided to return his people to their ancestral homeland, Dzungaria to restore Dzungar Khanate and Mongolian independence. As C.D Barkman notes "It is quite clear that the Torghuts had not intended to surrender the Chinese, but had hoped to lead an independent existence in Dzungaria"
Sources: wikipedia.org, news.lv, historia.lv
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