Alexander III

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Birth Date:
10.03.1845
Death date:
01.11.1894
Extra names:
Alexander III, Aleksandrs III Romanovs, лександр III Александрович Романов, Миротворец, Miera nesējs, Miernesis, Александр III, Aleksander III, Alexandre III, Aleksandras III, Олександр III, Aleksan
Categories:
King, ruler, Tsar (emperor)
Nationality:
 german, russian
Cemetery:
Sts Peter and Paul Cathedral
Alexander III (Russian: Алекса́ндр III; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ˈtrʲetʲɪj] Aleksandr Trety), or Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Рома́нов; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈmanəf]; 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) was the penultimate Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland from 13 March  [O.S. 1 March] 1881 until his death on 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894. He was highly conservative and reversed some of the liberal reforms of his father, Alexander II. During Alexander's reign Russia fought no major wars, for which he was styled "The Peacemaker" (Russian: Миротво́рец, Mirotvórets; IPA: [mʲɪrɐˈtvorʲɪt͡s]).

Early life

Disposition

Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich was born on 10 March 1845 at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the second son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna (Marie of Hesse).

In disposition Alexander bore little resemblance to his soft-hearted, liberal father, and still less to his refined, philosophic, sentimental, chivalrous, yet cunning great-uncle, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, who could have been given the title of "the first gentleman of Europe". Although an enthusiastic amateur musician and patron of the ballet, Alexander was seen as lacking refinement and elegance. Indeed, he rather relished the idea of being of the same rough texture as some of his subjects. His straightforward, abrupt manner savoured sometimes of gruffness, while his direct, unadorned method of expressing himself harmonized well with his rough-hewn, immobile features and somewhat sluggish movements. His education was not such as to soften these peculiarities. More than six feet tall (about 1.9 m), he was also noted for his immense physical strength. A sebaceous cyst on the left side of his nose caused him to be mocked by some of his contemporaries, and he sat for photographs and portraits with the right side of his face most prominent.

An account from the memoirs of the artist Alexander Benois gives one impression of Alexander III:

After a performance of the ballet 'Tsar Kandavl' at the Mariinsky Theatre, I first caught sight of the Emperor. I was struck by the size of the man, and although cumbersome and heavy, he was still a mighty figure. There was indeed something of the muzhik [Russian peasant] about him. The look of his bright eyes made quite an impression on me. As he passed where I was standing, he raised his head for a second, and to this day I can remember what I felt as our eyes met. It was a look as cold as steel, in which there was something threatening, even frightening, and it struck me like a blow. The Tsar's gaze! The look of a man who stood above all others, but who carried a monstrous burden and who every minute had to fear for his life and the lives of those closest to him. In later years I came into contact with the Emperor on several occasions, and I felt not the slightest bit timid. In more ordinary cases Tsar Alexander III could be at once kind, simple, and even almost homely.

Education

Though he was destined to be a strongly counter-reforming emperor, Alexander had little prospect of succeeding to the throne during the first two decades of his life, as he had an elder brother, Nicholas, who seemed of robust constitution. Even when Nicholas first displayed symptoms of delicate health, the notion that he might die young was never taken seriously, and he was betrothed to Princess Dagmar of Denmark, daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Queen Louise of Denmark, and whose siblings included King Frederick VIII of Denmark, Alexandra, Queen of the United Kingdom and King George I of Greece. Great solicitude was devoted to the education of Nicholas as tsesarevich, whereas Alexander received only the training of an ordinary Grand Duke of that period. This included acquaintance with French, English and German, and military drill.

As Tsesarevich

Alexander became Tsesarevich upon Nicholas's sudden death in 1865; it was then that he began to study the principles of law and administration under Konstantin Pobedonostsev, then a professor of civil law at Moscow State University and later (from 1880) chief procurator of the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church in Russia. Pobedonostsev awakened in his pupil little love of abstract study or prolonged intellectual exertion, but instilled into the young man's mind the belief that zeal for Russian Orthodox thought was an essential factor of Russian patriotism to be cultivated by every right-minded emperor. While he was heir apparent from 1865 to 1881 Alexander did not play a prominent part in public affairs, but allowed it to become known that he had ideas which did not coincide with the principles of the existing government.

On his deathbed the previous tsesarevich was said to have expressed the wish that his fiancée, Princess Dagmar of Denmark, should marry his successor. This wish was swiftly realized when on 9 November [O.S. 28 October] 1866 in the Grand Church of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Alexander wed Dagmar, who converted to Orthodox Christianity and took the name Maria Feodorovna. The union proved a happy one to the end; unlike his father's, there was no adultery in his marriage. The couple spent their wedding night at the Tsesarevich's private dacha known as "My Property".

Later on the Tsesarevich became estranged from his father; this was due to their vastly differing political views, as well was his resentment towards Alexander II's long-standing relationship with Catherine Dolgorukov (with whom he had several illegitimate children) while his mother, the Empress, was suffering from chronic ill-health. To the scandal of many at court, including the Tsesarevich himself, Alexander II married Catherine a mere month after Marie Alexandrovna's death in 1880.

Reign

On 1 March 1881 (O.S.) Alexander's father, Alexander II, was assassinated by members of the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya. As a result, he ascended to the Russian imperial throne in Nennal on 13 March 1881. He and Maria Feodorovna were officially crowned and anointed on 27 May 1883.

Domestic policies

On the day of his assassination Alexander II had signed an ukaz setting up consultative commissions to advise the monarch. On ascending to the throne, however, Alexander III took Pobedonostsev's advice and canceled the policy before its publication. He made it clear that his autocracy would not be limited.

All of Alexander III's internal reforms aimed to reverse the liberalization that had occurred in his father's reign. The new Emperor believed that remaining true to Russian Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality (the ideology introduced by his grandfather, emperor Nicholas I) would save Russia from revolutionary agitation. Alexander's political ideal was a nation composed of a single nationality, language, and religion, as well as one form of administration. He attempted to realize this by the institution of mandatory teaching of the Russian language throughout the empire, including to his German, Polish, and other non-Russian subjects (with the exception of the Finns), by the patronization of Eastern Orthodoxy, by the destruction of the remnants of German, Polish, and Swedish institutions in the respective provinces, and by the weakening of Judaism through persecution of the Jews. The latter policy was implemented in the "May Laws" of 1882, which banned Jews from inhabiting rural areas and shtetls (even within the Pale of Settlement) and restricted the occupations in which they could engage.

Alexander weakened the power of the zemstva (elective local administrative bodies resembling British parish councils) and placed the administration of peasant communes under the supervision of land-owning proprietors appointed by his government. These "land captains" (zemskiye nachalniki) were feared and resented throughout the Empire's peasant communities. These acts weakened the nobility and the peasantry and brought Imperial administration under the Emperor's personal control.

In such policies Alexander III had the encouragement of Konstantin Pobedonostsev, who retained control of the Church in Russia through his long tenure as Procurator of the Holy Synod (from 1880 to 1905) and who became tutor to Alexander's son and heir, Nicholas. (Pobedonostsev appears as "Toporov" in Tolstoy's novel, Resurrection.) Other conservative advisors included Count D. A. Tolstoy (minister of education, and later of internal affairs) and I. N. Durnovo (D. A. Tolstoy's successor in the latter post). Mikhail Katkov and other journalists supported the emperor in his autocracy—as did the novelist Dostoevsky.

Encouraged by its successful assassination of Alexander II, the Narodnaya Volya movement began planning the murder of Alexander III. The Okhrana uncovered the plot and five of the conspirators, including Alexander Ulyanov, the older brother of Vladimir Lenin, were captured and hanged on 20 May [O.S. 8 May] 1887. On 29 October [O.S. 17 October] 1888 the Imperial train derailed in an accident at Borki. At the moment of the crash, the imperial family was in the dining car. Its roof collapsed, and Alexander supposedly held its remains on his shoulders as the children fled outdoors. The onset of Alexander’s kidney failure was later attributed to the blunt trauma suffered in this incident.

The famine of 1891–1892 and the ensuing cholera epidemic permitted some liberal activity, as the Russian government could not cope with the crisis and had to allow zemstvos to help with relief (among others, Tolstoy helped organize soup-kitchens, and Chekhov directed anti-cholera precautions in several villages).

Foreign Policy

In foreign affairs Alexander III was a man of peace, but not at any price, and held that the best means of averting war is to be well-prepared for it. Though he was indignant at the conduct of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck towards Russia, he avoided an open rupture with Germany—even reviving the League of Three Emperors for a period of time—and in 1887, signed the Reinsurance Treaty with the Germans. However, in 1890, the expiration of the treaty coincided with the dismissal of Bismarck by the new German emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II (for whom the Tsar had an immense dislike), and the unwillingness of Wilhelm II's government to renew the treaty. In response Alexander III then began cordial relations with France, eventually entering into an alliance with the French in 1892.

Despite chilly relations with Berlin, the Tsar nevertheless confined himself to keeping a large number of troops near the German frontier. With regard to Bulgaria he exercised similar self-control. The efforts of Prince Alexander and afterwards of Stambolov to destroy Russian influence in the principality roused his indignation, but he vetoed all proposals to intervene by force of arms.

In Central Asian affairs he followed the traditional policy of gradually extending Russian domination without provoking conflict with the United Kingdom (see Panjdeh Incident), and he never allowed the bellicose partisans of a forward policy to get out of hand. His reign cannot be regarded as an eventful period of Russian history; but under his hard rule the country made considerable progress.

Alexander and his wife regularly spent their summers at Langinkoski manor near Kotka on the Finnish coast, where their children were immersed in a Scandinavian lifestyle of relative modesty.

Alexander deprecated foreign influence, German influence in particular, thus the adoption of local national principles was off in all spheres of official activity, with a view to realizing his ideal of a Russia homogeneous in language, administration and religion. These ideas conflicted with those of his father, who had German sympathies despite being a patriot; Alexander II often used the German language in his private relations, occasionally ridiculed the Slavophiles and based his foreign policy on the Prussian alliance.

Some differences had first appeared during the Franco-Prussian War, when Alexander II supported the cabinet of Berlin while the Tsesarevich made no effort to conceal his sympathies for the French. These sentiments would resurface during 1875-1879, when the Eastern Question excited Russian society. At first the Tsesarevich was more Slavophile than the government, but his phlegmatic nature restrained him from many exaggerations, and any popular illusions he may have imbibed were dispelled by personal observation in Bulgaria, where he commanded the left wing of the invading army. Never consulted on political questions, Alexander confined himself to military duties and fulfilled them in a conscientious and unobtrusive manner. After many mistakes and disappointments, the army reached Constantinople and the Treaty of San Stefano was signed, but much that had been obtained by that important document had to be sacrificed at the Congress of Berlin.

Bismarck failed to do what was expected of him by the Russian emperor. In return for the Russian support which had enabled him to create the German Empire, it was thought that he would help Russia to solve the Eastern question in accordance with Russian interests, but to the surprise and indignation of the cabinet of Saint Petersburg he confined himself to acting the part of "honest broker" at the Congress, and shortly afterwards contracted an alliance with Austria-Hungary for the purpose of counteracting Russian designs in Eastern Europe.

The Tsesarevich could refer to these results as confirmation of the views he had expressed during the Franco-Prussian War; he concluded that for Russia, the best thing was to recover as quickly as possible from her temporary exhaustion, and prepare for future contingencies by military and naval reorganization. In accordance with this conviction, he suggested that certain reforms should be introduced.

Family life

Following his father's assassination, Alexander III was advised that it would be difficult for him to be kept safe at the Winter Palace. As a result, Alexander relocated his family to the Gatchina Palace, located twenty miles south of St. Petersburg, making it his primary residence. Under heavy guard he would make occasional visits into St. Petersburg, but even then he would stay in the Anichkov Palace, as opposed to the Winter Palace.

In the 1860s Alexander fell madly in love with his mother's lady-in-waiting, Princess Maria Elimovna Meshcherskaya. Dismayed to learn that Prince Wittgenstein had proposed to her in spring 1866, he told his parents that he was prepared to give up his rights of succession in order to marry his beloved "Dusenka". On 19 May 1866, Alexander II informed his son that Russia had come to an agreement with the parents of Princess Dagmar of Denmark, his tenth cousin. Before then, she had been the fiancée of his late elder brother Nicholas. At first Alexander refused to travel to Copenhagen, declaring that he did not love Dagmar and his desire to marry Maria. In response the enraged emperor ordered Alexander to go straight to Denmark and propose to Princess Dagmar. The Tsesarevich then realised that he was not a free man and that duty had to come first and foremost; the only thing left to do was to write in his diary "Farewell, dear Dusenka." Maria was forced to leave Russia, accompanied by her aunt, Princess Chernyshova. Almost a year after her first appearance in Paris, Pavel Pavlovich Demidov, 2nd Prince di San Donato, fell in love with her and the couple married in 1867. Maria would die giving birth to her son Elim Pavlovich Demidov, 3rd Prince di San Donato. Alexander's reaction to the news of her death and the birth of her child is unknown.

Alexander soon grew fond of Dagmar and had six children by her, five of whom survived into adulthood: Nicholas (b. 1868), George (b. 1871), Xenia (b. 1875), Michael (b. 1878) and Olga (b. 1882). Of his five surviving children, he was closest to his youngest two.

Each summer his parents-in-law, King Christian IX and Queen Louise, held family reunions at the Danish royal palaces of Fredensborg and Bernstorff, bringing Alexander, Maria and their children to Denmark. His sister-in-law, the Princess of Wales, would come from Great Britain with some of her children, and his brother-in-law, King George I of Greece, his wife, Queen Olga, who was a first cousin of Alexander and a Romanov Grand Duchess by birth, came with their children from Athens. In contrast to the strict security observed in Russia, Alexander and Maria revelled in the relative freedom that they enjoyed in Denmark, Alexander once commenting to the Prince and Princess of Wales near the end of a visit that he envied them being able to return to a happy home in England, while he was returning to his Russian prison. In Denmark, he was able to enjoy joining his children in muddy ponds looking for tadpoles, sneaking into his father-in-law's orchard to steal apples, and playing pranks, such as turning a water hose on the visiting King Oscar II of Sweden.

As Tsesarevich—and then as Tsar—Alexander had an extremely poor relationship with his brother Grand Duke Vladimir. This tension was reflected in the rivalry between Maria Feodorovna and Vladimir's wife, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna.[6] Alexander had better relationships with his other brothers: Alexei (whom he made rear admiral and then a grand admiral of the Russian Navy), Sergei (whom he made governor of Moscow) and Paul.

Despite the antipathy that Alexander had towards his father's second wife, Princess Catherine Dolgorukov, he nevertheless allowed her to remain in the Winter Palace for some time after his father's assassination and to retain various keepsakes of him. These included Alexander II's blood-soaked uniform that he died wearing, and his reading glasses.

Illness and death

In 1894 Alexander III became ill with terminal kidney disease (nephritis). In the fall of that year, Maria Fyodorovna's sister-in-law, Queen Olga of Greece, offered her villa of Mon Repos, on the island of Corfu, in the hope that it might improve the Tsar's condition. However, by the time that they reached Crimea, they stayed at the Maly Palace in Livadia, as Alexander was too weak to travel any further. Recognizing that the Tsar's days were numbered, various imperial relatives began to descend on Livadia. Even the famed clergyman, John of Kronstadt, paid a visit and administered Communion to the Tsar. On 21 October, Alexander received Nicholas's fiancée, Princess Alix, who had come from her native Darmstadt to receive the Tsar's blessing. Despite being exceedingly weak, Alexander insisted on receiving Alix in full dress uniform, an event that left him exhausted. Soon after, his health began to rapidly deteriorate. He eventually died in the arms of his wife at Maly Palace in Livadia on the afternoon of 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894 at the age of forty-nine, and was succeeded by his eldest son Tsesarevich Nicholas, who took the throne as Nicholas II. After leaving Livadia on 6 November and traveling to St. Petersburg by way of Moscow, his remains were interred on 18 November at the Peter and Paul Fortress.

Source: wikipedia.org, regiment.ru

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        Relations

        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Alexander IIAlexander IIFather29.04.181813.03.1881
        2Maria  AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaMother08.08.182403.06.1880
        3Nikolajs II RomanovsNikolajs II RomanovsSon19.05.186817.07.1918
        4Mikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovMikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovSon04.12.187813.06.1918
        5Великая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаВеликая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаDaughter06.04.187520.04.1960
        6Ольга  РомановаОльга РомановаDaughter13.06.188224.11.1960
        7Paul  AlexandrovichPaul AlexandrovichBrother03.10.186030.01.1919
        8Владимир АлександровичВладимир АлександровичBrother10.04.184704.02.1909
        9Сергей АлександровичСергей АлександровичBrother11.05.185717.02.1905
        10Сергей  РомановСергей РомановBrother11.05.185717.02.1905
        11Maria AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaSister17.10.185324.10.1920
        12Мария ФёдоровнаМария ФёдоровнаWife26.11.184713.10.1928
        13Karl Alexander August JohannKarl Alexander August JohannUncle24.06.181805.01.1901
        14
        Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick AugustUncle25.09.180510.04.1806
        15Konstantin NikolayevichKonstantin NikolayevichUncle21.09.182725.01.1892
        16Михаил НиколаевичМихаил НиколаевичUncle25.10.183218.12.1909
        17Louis IIILouis IIIUncle09.06.180613.06.1877
        18Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичUncle10.08.185802.06.1915
        19Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeFrancis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeUncle28.08.183721.01.1900
        20Карл ГессенскийКарл ГессенскийUncle23.04.180920.03.1877
        21Duke Peter  Georgievich of OldenburgDuke Peter Georgievich of OldenburgUncle26.08.181214.05.1881
        22William IIIWilliam IIIUncle19.02.181723.11.1890
        23Marie Luise AlexandrineMarie Luise AlexandrineAunt03.02.180818.01.1877
        24Olga  NikolaevnaOlga NikolaevnaAunt11.09.182230.10.1892
        25Marie Luise Augusta KatharineMarie Luise Augusta KatharineAunt30.09.181107.01.1890
        26Екатерина МихайловнаЕкатерина МихайловнаAunt16.08.182730.04.1894
        27Dmitri  PavlovichDmitri PavlovichNephew06.09.189105.03.1942
        28Prince AlfredPrince AlfredNephew15.10.187406.02.1899
        29Всеволод  РомановВсеволод РомановNephew20.01.191418.06.1973
        30Кирилл ВладимировичКирилл ВладимировичNephew12.10.187612.10.1938
        31Boris  Wladimirowitsch RomanowBoris Wladimirowitsch RomanowNephew24.11.187709.11.1943
        32Andrei  VladimirovichAndrei VladimirovichNephew02.05.187930.10.1956
        33Vladimir  PaleyVladimir PaleyNephew09.01.189718.07.1918
        34Marie of RomaniaMarie of RomaniaNiece29.10.187518.07.1938
        35Princess Catherine IvanovnaPrincess Catherine IvanovnaNiece25.07.191513.03.2007
        36Victoria  MelitaVictoria MelitaNiece25.11.187602.03.1936
        37Natalia PaleyNatalia PaleyNiece05.12.190527.12.1981
        38Grand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGrand Duchess Maria PavlovnaNiece18.04.189013.12.1958
        39Grand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGrand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaNiece17.03.188213.03.1957
        40Victoria of BadenVictoria of BadenNiece07.08.186204.04.1930
        41Christian IX DenmarkChristian IX DenmarkFather in-law08.04.181829.01.1906
        42Louise of  Hesse-KasselLouise of Hesse-KasselMother in-law07.09.181729.09.1898
        43Петр  ОльденбургскийПетр ОльденбургскийSon in-law21.11.186811.03.1924
        44Grand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrand Duke Alexander MikhailovichSon in-law, Cousin13.04.186626.02.1933
        45Николай КуликовскийНиколай КуликовскийSon in-law05.11.188111.08.1958
        46Natalia  BrasovaNatalia BrasovaDaughter in-law09.07.188026.01.1952
        47Empress Alexandra  FeodorovnaEmpress Alexandra FeodorovnaDaughter in-law06.06.187217.07.1918
        48Olga  PaleyOlga PaleySister in-law02.12.186502.11.1929
        49Елизавета ФёдоровнаЕлизавета ФёдоровнаSister in-law01.11.186418.07.1918
        50Alexandra  GeorgievnaAlexandra GeorgievnaSister in-law30.08.187024.09.1891
        51Maria  PavlovnaMaria PavlovnaSister in-law14.05.185406.09.1920
        52Королева  Александра ДатскаяКоролева Александра ДатскаяSister in-law01.12.184420.11.1925
        53Фредерик VIIIФредерик VIIIBrother in-law03.06.184314.05.1912
        54Alfrēds Edinburgas, Olsteras un Kentas, Saksen- Koburgas  un Gotas HercogsAlfrēds Edinburgas, Olsteras un Kentas, Saksen- Koburgas un Gotas HercogsBrother in-law06.09.184431.07.1900
        55Louis II Hesse, Grand DukeLouis II Hesse, Grand DukeGrandfather26.12.177716.06.1848
        56Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas I of RussiaGrandfather06.07.179618.02.1855
        57Alexander  Württemberg, DukeAlexander Württemberg, DukeGrandfather09.09.180404.07.1885
        58Charles FrederickCharles FrederickGrandfather02.02.178308.07.1853
        59Людвиг II Гессен-Дармштадтский и ПрирейнскийЛюдвиг II Гессен-Дармштадтский и ПрирейнскийGrandfather26.12.177716.06.1848
        60Александра ФёдоровнаАлександра ФёдоровнаGrandmother13.07.179801.11.1860
        61Wilhelmine   Baden, PrincessWilhelmine Baden, PrincessGrandmother21.09.178827.01.1836
        62Maria  PavlovnaMaria PavlovnaGrandmother04.02.178611.06.1859
        63Александра ИосифовнаАлександра ИосифовнаGrandmother08.07.183006.07.1911
        64Prince George Duke of KentPrince George Duke of KentGrandson20.12.190225.08.1942
        65Князь Андрей АлександровичКнязь Андрей АлександровичGrandson24.01.189708.05.1981
        66Тихон Куликовский-РомановТихон Куликовский-РомановGrandson25.08.191708.04.1993
        67Князь Дмитрий АлександровичКнязь Дмитрий АлександровичGrandson15.08.190107.07.1980
        68Князь Никита АлександровичКнязь Никита АлександровичGrandson16.01.190012.09.1974
        69Prince Vasili AlexandrovichPrince Vasili AlexandrovichGrandson07.07.190724.06.1989
        70Ростислав АлександровичРостислав АлександровичGrandson24.11.190231.07.1978
        71Дмитрий  РомановДмитрий РомановGrandson17.05.192631.12.2016
        72George BrasovGeorge BrasovGrandson06.08.191021.07.1931
        73George VIGeorge VIGrandson14.12.189506.02.1952
        74Гурий  КуликовскийГурий КуликовскийGrandson23.04.191911.09.1984
        75Irina Alexandrovna of RussiaIrina Alexandrovna of RussiaGranddaughter03.07.189526.02.1970
        76Anastasia RomanovaAnastasia RomanovaGranddaughter18.06.190117.07.1918
        77Ольга  НиколаевнаОльга НиколаевнаGranddaughter15.11.189517.07.1918
        78Татьяна РомановаТатьяна РомановаGranddaughter10.06.189717.07.1918
        79Великая княжна Мария НиколаевнаВеликая княжна Мария НиколаевнаGranddaughter26.06.189917.07.1918
        80Михаил ПавловичМихаил ПавловичGreat grandfather08.02.179828.08.1849
        81Георгий Петрович ОльденбургскийГеоргий Петрович ОльденбургскийGreat grandfather00.00.178400.00.1812
        82Paul IPaul IGreat grandfather01.10.175423.03.1801
        83Louis Württemberg, DukeLouis Württemberg, DukeGreat grandfather30.08.175620.09.1817
        84Henriette  Nassau-Weilburg, PrincessHenriette Nassau-Weilburg, PrincessGreat grandmother22.04.178002.01.1857
        85Елена ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаGreat grandmother28.12.180621.01.1873
        86Екатерина ПавловнаЕкатерина ПавловнаGreat grandmother10.05.178809.01.1819
        87Maria FeodorovnaMaria FeodorovnaGreat grandmother14.10.175924.10.1828
        88Prince Nikita  Nikitich RomanovPrince Nikita Nikitich RomanovGreat grandson13.05.192303.05.2007
        89Prince Alexander  RomanovPrince Alexander RomanovGreat grandson04.11.192921.09.2002
        90Prince Michael  Andreevich RomanoffPrince Michael Andreevich RomanoffGreat grandson15.07.192022.09.2008
        91Edward  VIIIEdward VIIIGreat grandson23.06.189428.05.1972
        92Княгиня Ксения  РомановаКнягиня Ксения РомановаGreat granddaughter10.03.191922.10.2000
        93Irina YusupovaIrina YusupovaGreat granddaughter21.03.191530.08.1983
        94Nicholas  MikhailovichNicholas MikhailovichCousin14.04.185930.01.1919
        95Великий князь Сергей МихайловичВеликий князь Сергей МихайловичCousin07.10.186918.07.1918
        96Duke Constantine  Petrovich of OldenburgDuke Constantine Petrovich of OldenburgCousin09.05.185018.03.1906
        97Алексей МихайловичАлексей МихайловичCousin28.12.187502.03.1895
        98Alexander CambridgeAlexander CambridgeCousin14.04.187416.01.1957
        99Oleg  KonstantinovichOleg KonstantinovichCousin15.11.189229.09.1914
        100Георгий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийГеоргий Мекленбург-СтрелицкийCousin25.05.185905.12.1909
        101Constantine I of GreeceConstantine I of GreeceCousin02.08.186811.01.1923
        102Принц Александр  ОльденбургскийПринц Александр ОльденбургскийCousin02.06.184406.09.1932
        103Prince Christopher  of Greece and DenmarkPrince Christopher of Greece and DenmarkCousin10.08.188821.01.1940
        104Prince Nicholas of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Nicholas of Greece and DenmarkCousin22.01.187208.02.1938
        105Princess Maria of Greece and DenmarkPrincess Maria of Greece and DenmarkCousin03.03.187614.12.1940
        106Grand Duchess Maria  Nikolaevna of RussiaGrand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of RussiaCousin18.08.181921.02.1876
        107князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийCousin29.02.185203.05.1912
        108Prince Andrew of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Andrew of Greece and DenmarkCousin02.02.188203.12.1944
        109Duchess Alexandra  Petrovna of OldenburgDuchess Alexandra Petrovna of OldenburgCousin02.06.183825.04.1900
        110Великий Князь Георгий МихайловичВеликий Князь Георгий МихайловичCousin23.08.186330.01.1919
        111Тереза ОльденбургскаяТереза ОльденбургскаяCousin30.03.185219.04.1883
        112Igor  ConstantinovichIgor ConstantinovichCousin29.05.189418.07.1918
        113Grand Duke Nicholas  Nikolaevich of RussiaGrand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of RussiaCousin18.11.185605.01.1929
        114Александр ИскандерАлександр ИскандерCousin15.11.188726.01.1957
        115Великий князь Пётр НиколаевичВеликий князь Пётр НиколаевичCousin10.01.186417.06.1931
        116Mary of TeckMary of TeckCousin26.05.186724.03.1953
        117Карл Шведский, герцог ВестергётландскийКарл Шведский, герцог ВестергётландскийCousin27.02.186124.10.1951
        118Olga  Constantinovna of RussiaOlga Constantinovna of RussiaCousin03.09.185118.06.1926
        119Анастасия МихайловнаАнастасия МихайловнаCousin28.07.186011.03.1922
        120Gabriel RomanovGabriel RomanovCousin15.07.188728.02.1955
        121Михаил Михайлович, Великий князьМихаил Михайлович, Великий князьCousin16.10.186126.04.1929
        122Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийCousin27.07.183113.04.1891
        123Louis IVLouis IVCousin12.09.183713.03.1892
        124Prince Ioann  Konstantinovich of RussiaPrince Ioann Konstantinovich of RussiaCousin05.07.188618.07.1918
        125Принц Николай ПетровичПринц Николай ПетровичCousin09.05.184020.01.1886
        126Georgy  KonstantinovichGeorgy KonstantinovichCousin23.04.190307.11.1938
        127Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановCousin01.06.186030.01.1919
        128Вера КонстантиновнаВера КонстантиновнаCousin24.04.190611.01.2001
        129Мориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийМориц Саксен-АльтенбургскийCousin24.10.182913.05.1907
        130Николай КонстантиновичНиколай КонстантиновичCousin14.02.185027.01.1918
        131Princess LouisePrincess LouiseCousin03.12.183823.04.1923

        17.02.1880 | Piektais atentāts pret Krievijas imperatoru Aleksandru II

        Atentāta rezultātā bojā gāja 11, bet ievainoti tika 56 Ziemas pilī esošie cilvēki (pārsvarā apsardzes kareivji). Pats imperators necieta. Atentātu sagatavoja organizācijas Narodnaja Voļa aktīvists Stepans Halturins, kurš spridzināšanai bija sanesis vairāk kā 30 kg dinamīta. Atentāta rīkotājam izdevās izbēgt, taču pēc 2 gadiem viņu noķēra Odesā pēc atentāta prokuroram Streļņikovam. Prokuroru nogalināja, taču tika aizturēti arī abi slepkavas, kas pēc tam tika tiesāti un pakārti.

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        25.12.1881 | The Warsaw pogrom 1881

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        17.10.1888 | Avarē Krievijas imperatora Aleksandra III vilciens netālu no Harkovas

        Vairāk kā 60 ievainotie, 21 katastrofā iet bojā. No 15 speciālā vilciena vagoniem 10 ir pilnībā sadragāti, jo vilciens braucis apmēram 68 km/st un avarējot nogāzies no apmēram 10m augsta uzbēruma. Imperatora ģimene- paliek neskarta. Pēc oficiālās versijas katastrofa notikusi pārāk liela ātruma dēļ, taču cita apgalvo, ka tas ir bijis terora akts un vilcienā bijusi ievietota bumba. Pēc jaunā stila- 29/10/1888

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        29.10.1888 | Крушение императорского поезда у ст.Борки

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        23.10.2017 | Started russian historical drama film - Matilda

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