Gunars Chipens

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Gunārs Čipēns,
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Гунарс Чипенс, Professor Gunars CHIPENS
Academician, Chemist, Professor, Scientist
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Born: November 11, 1933, Riga, Latvia


  • Structure of the Second Half of the Genetic Code
  • Superantigens:
  • structural and functional organization;
  • action mechanisms;
  • construction and synthesis of artificial superantigens;
  • superantigens as inducers of autoimmune diseases.
  • M Proteins (Streptococcus pyogenes):
  • structural and functional organization;
  • M proteins as inducers of autoimmune diseases.
  • Exon/Intron Emergence Problem
  • Programmed Cell Death:
  • active site structures of proteins,
  • apoptosis inducers; apoptosis inducers as potential drugs for cancer treatment and
  • autoimmunity (elimination of autoreactive T cell clones);
  • design and synthesis of apoptosis inducers.

Brief Description of Main Research:

My recent research work concentrates on protein sequence analysis, based on the amino acid interaction code (the second half of the genetic code) deciphered with the effort of our research group during the last years. This is a distinct and independent code which determines the amino acid interactions. The designed model of code structure has allowed to elaborate a new method of analysis of protein structures, called CAACRA (comparative amino acid codon root analysis). This method has been used to demonstrate covert internal symmetry of peptide chains, to confirm protein emergence by multimerisation of peptide-coding gene segments (repeat units), and to explain the formation of exon and intron structures. Also, the locations of functionally active sites in several proteins have been determined. Particularly perspective seems the application of CAACRA for comparative analysis of proteins to determine their evolutionary relationship. Our current projects deal with the studies of structural and functional organization of superantigens.

Languages: English, Latvian, Russian


  • Riga Industrial Polytechnical School (Chemical Department), 1953
  • University of Latvia (Faculty of Chemistry), 1958
  • Dr. chem. (Candidate of Science in former USSR, Ph.D. in a Western countries), Latvian State University, 1963
  • Dr. habil. chem. (Doctor of Science in former USSR), Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1973
  • Professor of Bioorganic Chemistry, Institute of Organic Synthesis, 1977


Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis -

  • Engineer, Junior and Senior Researcher, 1958-1964
  • Head of the Laboratory of Amino Acids and Peptides, 1964-1982
  • Director, 1976-1982
  • Head of the Research Group of Molecular Immunology, 1982 -
  • Leading Researcher, 1996 -

Honours and Awards:

  • Corresponding Member, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1975
  • Full Member, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 1982
  • Latvian State Prize, 1976
  • USSR State Prize, 1983
  • The Latvian Academy of Sciences Gustavs Vanags Prize, 1992
  • The Latvian Academy of Sciences and Joint Stock Company "Grindex" Prize, 2004
  • The Latvian Academy of Sciences Presidium First Award, 1972, 1975, 1977 and 1989
  • State Emeritus Scientist, 2002

Professional Activities and Memberships:

  • Member, Editorial Board for Proceedings of Latvian Academy of Sciences
  • Member of the European Peptide Society


Protein Chemistry, Biology and Genetics , University of Latvia and Riga Technical University, 1973 -1976

Recent/Representative Publications:  

  • Chipens G., Ievina N., Liepina I., Kalvinsh I. Autoscanning of codon root palindroms. - Latvian J. Chem., 2006, N4, pp. 263- 273.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N., Kalvinsh I. Exons and introns of globin genes originated from repetitive nucleic acids. - Latvian J. Chem., 2006, N3, pp. 256- 262.
  • Chipens G. Symmetry and antisymmetry of the genetic code: models of the sense/antisense and the codon root code (Review). - Latvian J. Chem., 2006, N1, pp. 3 - 18.
  • Chipens G. Heptades of M proteins reflect evolution of structures and functions of peptide chain repeat units. - Latvian J. Chem., 2005, N 2, pp. 201- 203.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Water structure as a potential factor determining the code of amino acid interactions. - Latvian J. Chem., 2005, N 1, pp. 3-13.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Basic language of the protein world. - Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 4, pp. 393-394.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Exons and introns of gene ancestor were formed from identical repeats: an example of collagen. -  Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 3, pp. 297-298.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Quasiantisymmetry of the double helices of DNA and structure of the sense/antisense code-16. -  Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 3, pp. 299-301.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. The code of amino acis interaction. -  Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 2, pp. 111-122.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. A mirror symmetry of the genetic code table. -  Latvian J. Chem., 2004, N 2, pp. 177-178.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Repeat units are the basic elements of gene and protein structural organisation. -      Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, 1999, vol. 53, N 1, pp. 54-55.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N. Outlines of a nucleotide-multiplication theory of exon and intron origin. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, 1999, vol. 53, N 2, pp. 65-72.
  • Chipens G., Ievina N., RudzishR., Mekshun E., Bobrova I. The molekular basis of sense/anti-sense peptide interaction. - In: Peptides, 1998 (Eds. Bajusz S., Hudecz F.),Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1999, pp. 434-435.
  • Bobrova I., Abissova N., Mishlakova N., Rozentals G, Chipens G. Synthesis and biological activity of branched enkephalin analogues (1998). - Eur. J.Med. Chem., vol. 33, N 4. pp. 255-266.
  • Bobrova I.,  Chipens G., Leonaviciene L., Astrauskas V., Bradunaite R. The synthesis of enkephalin analogs as possible regulators of inflammatory and autoimmune responses in rats with adjuvant arthritis (1998). - Proc. 24th European Peptide Symp. Peptides-1996, Sept 8-13, Edinburg, Scotland / Ed. R.Ramage, R.Epton. - England: Mayflower Sci. Ltd), pp. 269-270.
  • Chipens, G. (1996) The second half of the genetic code. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, vol. 50,N 4/5, pp. 151-172.
  • Chipens, G., Ievina, N. (1994) Comparative amino acid codon root analysis (CAACRA) of peptide chains. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect. B, vol. 48, N 3, pp. 50-54.
  • Chipens, G., Cilinskis, E. (1994) Emergence and evolution of protein structures by multiplication of nucleic acid segments. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci., Sect.B, vol. 48, N 3,pp. 55-60.
  • Chipens, G., Cilinskis, E. (1994) Internal covert symmetry of peptide chains reflects evolution of protein by gene segment multiplication. - Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci,. Sect. B, vol. 48, N 7/8, pp. 97-106.
  • Chipens, G. (1992) Folding of peptide chains is stipulated by the code of amino acid codon roots during the formation of spatial structures of protein molecules. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 18, pp. 757-765 (in Russian).
  • Chipens, G. (1991) The hidden symmetry of the genetic code and rules of amino acid interaction. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 17, pp. 1335-1346 (in Russian).
  • Chipens, G., Rudzish, R. (1991) Interaction code of polar and apolar amino acids: "ice-breaker" model. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 17, pp. 1445-1448 (In Russian).
  • Chipens, G., Ievina, N., Rudzish, R. (1991) Code of codon roots determinating inter- and intramolecular interaction of amino acids in peptide chains. - Bioorgan. Khim., vol. 17, pp. 1582-1584 (in Russian).
  • Chipens, G. (1988) New biologically active fragments of immunoglobulins. - Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev., vol. 2, pp. 167-206.
  • Chipens, G., Vegner, R., Ievina, N., Rozenthal, G. (1986) Polarines: a novel group of immunologically active peptides. - Immunol. Res., vol. 5, pp. 314-327.
  • Chipens, G. (1983) Cyclic analogues of bradykinins: potential significance. - Surv. Immunol. Res, vol. 2, pp. 102-108.
  • Chipens, G., Mutulis, F., Galaktionov, S. (1980) Recognition of peptide hormones and kinins: molecular aspects of the problem. - In: Frontiers of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Biology (Ed. Ananchenko, S.), Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 99-103.
  • Academican of Latvian Academy of Sciences G.Chipens. Bibliography (compiled by G.Stale, Dz.Zake, I.Zaure), 1993, Riga:Latvian Academic Library (In Latvian, English, Russian).

Research Projects:

  • G.Chipens (Head of Project). Molecular Organisation of Cell Regulatory ProteinsLatvian Council of Science (1994-1996).
  • G.Chipens (Head of Project). Structural and Functional Organization, Emergence and Evolution to Proteins. Latvian Council of Science (1997-2001).
  • Interaction between HLA Class II and Peptides: Definition of Functionally Important Epitopes Implicated in Susceptibility to Chronic Autoimmune Diseases (1995-1997). Cooperation in science and technology with Central and Eastern European countries and with the new independent States of the former Soviet Union (PECO 94). Coordinator M. Sanchez Perez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Microbiologia II).
  • G.Chipens (Head of Project). System Analysis of Origin and Evolution of Exons and Introns. Latvian Council of Science (2001-2003).

Source:, DD


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