Theodore Van Kirk

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Теодор Ван Кирк, Theodore "Dutch" J. Van Kirk
Military person, Pilot, War criminal
Boston, Granary Burying Ground

Theodore Van Kirk (February 27, 1921 – July 28, 2014) was a navigator of the United States Army Air Forces, best known as the navigator of the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

With the death of fellow crewman Morris Jeppson (who died on March 30, 2010), Van Kirk was the last surviving member of theEnola Gay crew.

Early US Army career

Van Kirk was born in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, and joined the Army Air Force Aviation Cadet ProgramOctober 1941. On 1 April 1942, he received both his commission and navigator wings and transferred to the 97th Bomb Group, the first operational B-17 Flying Fortress unit in England. The crew of the "Red Gremlin" also included pilot Paul Tibbets and bombardier Tom Ferebee. Van Kirk would later fly with these men on the Hiroshima mission.

From August to October 1942 the crew flew 11 missions out of England. They were the lead aircraft, responsible for group navigation and bombing. In October 1942 they flew General Mark Clark to Gibraltar for his secret North African rendezvous with the French prior to Operation Torch. In November they ferried General Eisenhower to Gibraltar to command the North African invasion forces. After German reinforcements began pouring into the port ofBizerte, Tunisia, posing a serious threat to Allied strategy, a new mission emerged. On 16 November 1942 the crew led their group in an attack that took the Germans by surprise at Sidi Ahmed Air Base at Bizerte.

Atomic bombing of Japan

Van Kirk returned to the States in June 1943 after flying a total of 58 missions overseas. He served as an instructor navigator until reuniting with Tibbets and Ferebee in the 509th Composite Group at Wendover Field, Utah, in late 1944. The group flew the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, with Tibbets as commander and Van Kirk as the group navigator. From November 1944 to June 1945 they trained continually for the first atomic bomb drop, which occurred 6 August 1945.

The thirteen-hour mission to Hiroshima began at 02.45 hrs in the morning Tinian time. By the time they rendezvoused with their accompanying B-29s at 0607 hrs over Iwo Jima, the group was three hours from the target area. As they approached the target Van Kirk worked closely with the bombardier, Tom Ferebee, to confirm the winds and aimpoint. The bomb fell away from the aircraft at 09:15:17 Tinian time. Van Kirk later participated in Operation Crossroads, the first Bikini Atoll atomic bomb tests. According to the 1995 New York Times interview by Gustav Niebuhr Mr. Van Kirk told he was often asked, "given a choice about his role in the Hiroshima bombing, would he do it again?":

Under the same circumstances -- and the key words are 'the same circumstances' -- yes, I would do it again. We were in a war for five years. We were fighting an enemy that had a reputation for never surrendering, never accepting defeat. It's really hard to talk about morality and war in the same sentence. In a war, there are so many questionable things done. Where was the morality in the bombing of Coventry, or the bombing of Dresden, or the Bataan death march, or the Rape of Nanking, or the bombing of Pearl Harbor? I believe that when you're in a war, a nation must have the courage to do what it must to win the war with a minimum loss of lives.

In October 2007, Van Kirk auctioned off the flight log he kept on board the Enola Gay during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima for $US358,500 in a public auction. Van Kirk stated he decided to sell the log because he wants it to be kept at a museum. The auction house did not reveal the name of the successful bidder, although admitted it was a U.S. citizen.

Later life

In August 1946 Van Kirk completed his service in the Army Air Forces as a Major. His decorations include the Silver Star, the Distinguished Flying Cross, and 15 Air Medals. Van Kirk went on to receive his Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Chemical Engineering from Bucknell University in 1949 and 1950. For the next 35 years, he held various technical and managerial positions in research and marketing with DuPont. Van Kirk was present at the 2008 Thunder over Michigan Air Show.

On August 21, 2010 Van Kirk appeared at a gun and knife collector's show in Dallas, TX where his autograph was obtained dedicated "To Wikipedia."

On September 3, 2010 Major Van Kirk, accompanied by his wife, appeared at the model air show "Warbirds Over Atlanta 2010" in Ball Ground, Georgia where he signed his books and photographs as a replica of the B-29 flew overhead.

Major Van Kirk appeared and signed books at Vectren Dayton Air Show Dayton Air Show on July 8, 2012.

Major Van Kirk appeared at the Marietta Museum of History on August 11–12, 2012. He signed his book, "My True Course," from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. on both Saturday and Sunday at the museum's Aviation Wing. On Saturday, August 11 at 4 p.m., he gave a rare lecture back at the main wing of the Marietta Museum of History.

On September 14, 2013, Major Van Kirk visited and spoke at the Frontiers of Flight Museum in Dallas, TX. He spoke for about an hour about his experience in the service, and afterwards, he signed copies of his book, "My True Course." During this event, Mr. Van Kirk relayed stories about both his practice bombing runs in America and his real bombing missions abroad. He was asked to describe the difference between the practice and real missions, and he replied, "In America, they're not shooting at you!"

On September 15, 2013, he spoke for approximately an hour and answered questions about his military service and specifically his role as the navigator on the Enola Gay at the Cavanaugh Flight Museum in Addison, TX. Afterwards, he signed copies of his latest book "My True Course."

He died on July 28, 2014.



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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription

        06.08.1945 | Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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        09.08.1945 | Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

        The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were conducted by the United States during the final stages of World War II in August 1945. The two bombings were the first and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare. Following a firebombing campaign that destroyed many Japanese cities, the Allies prepared for a costly invasion of Japan. The war in Europe ended when Nazi Germany signed its instrument of surrender on May 8, 1945, but the Pacific War continued. Together with the United Kingdom and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945, threatening "prompt and utter destruction". By August 1945, the Allied Manhattan Project had successfully tested an atomic device and had produced weapons based on two alternate designs. The 509th Composite Group of the U.S. Army Air Forces was equipped with a Silverplate Boeing B-29 Superfortress that could deliver them from Tinian in the Mariana Islands. A uranium gun-type atomic bomb (Little Boy) was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, followed by a plutonium implosion-type bomb (Fat Man) on the city of Nagasaki on August 9. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizeable garrison. On August 15, just days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union's declaration of war, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies. On September 2, it signed the instrument of surrender, ending World War II. The bombings' role in Japan's surrender and their ethical justification are still debated.

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