Wincenty Witos

Please add an image!
Birth Date:
21.01.1874
Death date:
31.10.1945
Extra names:
Wincenty Witos, Maciej Rydz
Categories:
Politician, Prime minister
Nationality:
 pole
Cemetery:
Wierzchosławice, cmentarz parafialny

Wincenty Witos (22 January 1874 - 31 October 1945) was a prominent member of the Polish People's Party (PSL) from 1895, and leader of its "Piast" faction from 1913. He was a member of parliament in the Galician Sejm from 1908–1914, and an envoy to Reichsrat in Vienna from 1911 to 1918. Witos was also a leader of Polish Liquidation Committee (Polish: Polska Komisja Likwidacyjna) in 1918, head of the Piast party, and member of parliament in the Polish Sejm from 1919-1920.

He served thrice as the premier of Poland, in 1920-1921, 1923 (Chjeno-Piast), and 1926.

In 1926 the third Witos government was overthrown by the May coup d'état led by Józef Piłsudski. Witos had been one of the leaders of the opposition to the Sanacja-government as head of Centrolew (1929–1930) and co-founded the People's Party. Having been imprisoned shortly thereafter and for a time living in exile in Czechoslovakia from 1933, he returned to Poland in 1939 only to be imprisoned again by the invading Germans.

In ill health by 1945, he became one of vice-chairmen of the State National Council (Polish: Krajowa Rada Narodowa) after World War II. In 1945-46 the People's Party was reorganized and taken over by Stanisław Mikołajczyk.

Early life

Wincenty was born in a peasant family in Wierzchosławice in Lesser Poland/Galicia. His parents were Wojciech and Katarzyna née Sroka. The family was poor, owning little land and no livestock and they lived in a single room hut which had been converted from a barn. Wincenty had two brothers, Jan and Andrzej. Andrzej would also become a leader in the Polish agrarian movement.

He began his education in the village school at the age of ten and finished four grades. Subsequently he worked, helping his father, as a lumberjack for Prince Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko.

Between 1895 and 1897 Wincenty served in the Austrian Army (Galicia was part of the Austrian partition of Poland), first in infantry then in the artillery. He was stationed in Tarnów, Kraków and Krzesławice.

He married Katarzyna Trach on February 9, 1898. His daughter Julia was born March 22, 1899.

Early political activity

At the age of nineteen he published his first newspaper article in the Przyjaciel Ludu ("Friend of the People") based in Lwów (Lviv, Lemberg), under the name "Maciej Rydz". In 1895 Witos joined the Galician Stronnictwo Ludowe ("People's Party") and in February 1903 he was elected to the Executive Committee of the party. In 1908 he was elected as a delegate to the Diet of Galicia in Lwow and served until 1914.

In April 1909 Witos was elected the wójt (mayor) of his native Wierzchosławice. During his tenure he focused on the economic development of the village, oversaw the construction of a mill and a social center, improved local roads, expanded the school and organized a farmer's cooperative and credit union. He gradually rose in the ranks of the agrarian movement.

Road to Independence

In December 1913 the People's Party split. As a result in February 1914 Witos was elected as vice president of the newly created political party Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe "Piast" (Polish People's Party "Piast").In 1911 he served as a deputy of the party to Austria's Imperial Council's House of Representatives. Technically he remained the member of the Austrian government until 1918.

After the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Witos became even more involved in party activities. The group joined the Supreme National Committee a quasi-government for the Poles in Galicia, for which Witos served as vice president. As the political events associated with the war unfolded and the Committee became more and more irrelevant, Witos resigned.

During the war Witos kept in touch with Polish independence movement activists, including Ignacy Paderewski and Jędrzej Moraczewski. He also supported Józef Piłsudski, whom he saw as the future leader of a reconstituted Polish army. "Piast"'s backing for Piłsudski increased after the Oath Crisis and the internment of Piłsudski by the Germans. Gradually, the agrarians of the Polish People's Party came to believe that the cause of Polish independence was best served by an alliance with the alliance, and as a result began supporting the pro-Entente, anti-German, National Democrats. In 1917 Witos joined Roman Dmowski's National League although he left the organization in 1918.

In 1916 he became the president of "Piast". He coauthored a manifesto which declared the aims of a reconstituted, independent Poland, which was published in May 1917. On September 28, 1918 he was one of the two directors of the Polish Liquidation Committee, a temporary government whose purpose was to preserve law and order in the former Austrian partition, during the transition to an elected Polish government. The Committee declared Western Galicia independent of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Witos was invited to join the government of Ignacy Daszyński but turned the offer down due to political differences. Witos was also unsatisfied with the fact that the new government did not have representatives from the Prussian Partition.

 

Source: wikipedia.org

No places

    loading...

        Relations

        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1
        Wojciech WitosFather16.04.184118.04.1911
        2
        Katarzyna WitosMother10.10.184007.02.1920
        3Andrzej WitosAndrzej WitosBrother08.11.187809.03.1973

        17.11.1918 | Naczelnik Państwa Józef Piłsudski powołał rząd Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego

        Rząd Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego (formalna nazwa - Tymczasowy Rząd Ludowy Republiki Polskiej) – gabinet pod kierownictwem socjalistycznego premiera Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego, utworzony 17 listopada 1918 przez Józefa Piłsudskiego. Pod względem organizacyjnym i prawnym kontynuował prace powołanego przez Radę Regencyjną prowizorium rządowego Władysława Wróblewskiego. Politycznie był częściowo kontynuacją rządu lubelskiego Ignacego Daszyńskiego, który podporządkował się Józefowi Piłsudskiemu.

        Submit memories

        18.11.1918 | Zaprzysiężono rząd Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego

        Rząd Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego (formalna nazwa - Tymczasowy Rząd Ludowy Republiki Polskiej) – gabinet pod kierownictwem socjalistycznego premiera Jędrzeja Moraczewskiego, utworzony 17 listopada 1918 przez Józefa Piłsudskiego. Pod względem organizacyjnym i prawnym kontynuował prace powołanego przez Radę Regencyjną prowizorium rządowego Władysława Wróblewskiego. Politycznie był częściowo kontynuacją rządu lubelskiego Ignacego Daszyńskiego, który podporządkował się Józefowi Piłsudskiemu.

        Submit memories

        10.02.1919 | W Warszawie zainaugurował obrady Sejm Ustawodawczy, którego kadencja trwała do 27 listopada 1922 roku. Na stanowisko marszałka wybrany został Wojciech Trąmpczyński

        Submit memories

        01.12.1922 | Na swym pierwszym posiedzeniu zebrał się Sejm I kadencji, który wybrał na marszałka Macieja Rataja

        Sejm I kadencji (1922–1927) to niższa izba parlamentu wybrana 5 listopada 1922. Sejm I kadencji został wyłoniony w drodze demokratycznych wyborów pięcioprzymiotnikowych (bezpośrednich, powszechnych, równych, proporcjonalnych, w głosowaniu tajnym) przeprowadzonych na podstawie Konstytucji uchwalonej przez Sejm Ustawodawczy. Marszałkiem Sejmu I kadencji był Maciej Rataj

        Submit memories

        28.05.1923 | Powołano drugi rząd Wincentego Witosa

        Drugi rząd Wincentego Witosa – gabinet pod kierownictwem premiera Wincentego Witosa, utworzony 28 maja 1923 roku. Rząd ustąpił 14 grudnia 1923 roku.

        Submit memories

        10.05.1926 | Utworzono trzeci rząd Wincentego Witosa

        Trzeci rząd Wincentego Witosa powstał 10 maja 1926 roku po utracie poparcia PPS-u przez rząd Aleksandra Skrzyńskiego (który upadł 5 maja 1926). Był to kolejny rząd Wincentego Witosa utworzony przez Chrześcijański Związek Jedności Narodowej i PSL Piast.

        Submit memories

        12.05.1926 | Maija apvērsums Polijā

        Maija apvērsums (Przewrót majowy vai Zamach majowy) bija valsts apvērsums Polijā, kas norisinājās 1926. gadā no 12. līdz 14. maijam.

        Submit memories

        Tags