Nicholas I of Russia

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Mikołaj I Romanow, Николай I Павлович Романов, Николай I, Nikolajs I, Nokolajs Pavlovičs Romanovs, Николай Павлович Романов
Emperor, Knyaz (Prince, Duke), Tsar (emperor)
Grand Ducal Burial Vault

Nicholas I (Николай I Павлович, r Nikolai I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's disastrous defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-56. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier – a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. His reign had an ideology called "Official Nationality" that was proclaimed officially in 1833. It was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism.

He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. His aggressive foreign policy involved many expensive wars, having a disastrous effect on the empire's finances.

He was successful against Russia's neighbouring southern rivals as he seized the last territories in the Caucasus held by Persia (comprising modern day Armenia and Azerbaijan) by successfully ending the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). By now, Russia had gained what is now Dagestan, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia from Persia, and had therefore at last gained the clear upper hand in the Caucasus, both geo-politically as well as territorially. He ended the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) successfully as well. Later on, however, he led Russia into the Crimean War (1853–56) with disastrous results. Historians emphasize that his micromanagement of the armies hindered his generals, as did his misguided strategy. Fuller notes that historians have frequently concluded that "the reign of Nicholas I was a catastrophic failure in both domestic and foreign policy." On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its geographical zenith, spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles), but in desperate need of reform.


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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Paul IPaul IFather01.10.175423.03.1801
        2Maria FeodorovnaMaria FeodorovnaMother14.10.175924.10.1828
        3Konstantin NikolayevichKonstantin NikolayevichSon21.09.182725.01.1892
        4Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийSon27.07.183113.04.1891
        5Alexander IIAlexander IISon29.04.181813.03.1881
        6Olga  NikolaevnaOlga NikolaevnaDaughter11.09.182230.10.1892
        7Grand Duchess Maria  Nikolaevna of RussiaGrand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of RussiaDaughter18.08.181921.02.1876
        8Alexander I of RussiaAlexander I of RussiaBrother12.12.177719.11.1825
        9Михаил ПавловичМихаил ПавловичBrother08.02.179828.08.1849
        10Константин ПавловичКонстантин ПавловичBrother27.04.177915.06.1831
        11Елена  ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаSister17.12.178424.09.1803
        12Екатерина ПавловнаЕкатерина ПавловнаSister10.05.178809.01.1819
        13Анна ПавловнаАнна ПавловнаSister18.01.179501.03.1865
        14Maria  PavlovnaMaria PavlovnaSister04.02.178611.06.1859
        15Александра ФёдоровнаАлександра ФёдоровнаWife13.07.179801.11.1860
        16Louis Württemberg, DukeLouis Württemberg, DukeUncle30.08.175620.09.1817
        Anna PiotrownaAunt20.12.175716.03.1759
        18Duke Peter  Georgievich of OldenburgDuke Peter Georgievich of OldenburgNephew26.08.181214.05.1881
        19William IIIWilliam IIINephew19.02.181723.11.1890
        20Gustaw EhrenbergGustaw EhrenbergNephew14.02.181828.09.1895
        Paul Alexander Karl Constantin Frederick AugustNephew25.09.180510.04.1806
        22Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeFrancis Paul Charles Louis Alexander Teck, DukeNephew28.08.183721.01.1900
        23Karl Alexander August JohannKarl Alexander August JohannNephew24.06.181805.01.1901
        24Marie Luise AlexandrineMarie Luise AlexandrineNiece03.02.180818.01.1877
        25Sophie Of the NetherlandsSophie Of the NetherlandsNiece08.04.182423.03.1897
        26Екатерина МихайловнаЕкатерина МихайловнаNiece16.08.182730.04.1894
        27Marie Luise Augusta KatharineMarie Luise Augusta KatharineNiece30.09.181107.01.1890
        28Maximilian de  BeauharnaisMaximilian de BeauharnaisSon in-law02.10.181701.11.1852
        29Duchess Alexandra  Petrovna of OldenburgDuchess Alexandra Petrovna of OldenburgDaughter in-law02.06.183825.04.1900
        30Elisabeth  of Saxe-AltenburgElisabeth of Saxe-AltenburgDaughter in-law25.01.186524.03.1927
        31Maria  AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaDaughter in-law08.08.182403.06.1880
        32Olga  FeodorovnaOlga FeodorovnaDaughter in-law20.09.183912.04.1891
        33Catherine  DolgorukovCatherine DolgorukovDaughter in-law14.11.184715.02.1922
        34Александра ИосифовнаАлександра ИосифовнаDaughter in-law08.07.183006.07.1911
        35Елена ПавловнаЕлена ПавловнаSister in-law28.12.180621.01.1873
        36Виллем IIВиллем IIBrother in-law06.12.179217.03.1849
        37Charles FrederickCharles FrederickBrother in-law02.02.178308.07.1853
        38Георгий Петрович ОльденбургскийГеоргий Петрович ОльденбургскийBrother in-law00.00.178400.00.1812
        39Frederick  LouisFrederick LouisBrother in-law13.06.177829.11.1819
        40Elizabeth  AlexeievnaElizabeth AlexeievnaBrother in-law24.01.177916.05.1826
        41Frederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeFrederick II Eugene Württemberg, DukeGrandfather21.01.173223.12.1797
        42Stanisław PoniatowskiStanisław PoniatowskiGrandfather17.01.173212.02.1798
        43Peter IIIPeter IIIGrandfather21.02.172817.07.1762
        44Catherine the  GreatCatherine the GreatGrandmother02.05.172917.11.1796
        45Paul  AlexandrovichPaul AlexandrovichGrandson03.10.186030.01.1919
        46Gabriel RomanovGabriel RomanovGrandson15.07.188728.02.1955
        47Prince Ioann  Konstantinovich of RussiaPrince Ioann Konstantinovich of RussiaGrandson05.07.188618.07.1918
        48Великий князь Сергей МихайловичВеликий князь Сергей МихайловичGrandson07.10.186918.07.1918
        49Nicholas  MikhailovichNicholas MikhailovichGrandson14.04.185930.01.1919
        50Владимир АлександровичВладимир АлександровичGrandson10.04.184704.02.1909
        51Сергей МихайловичСергей МихайловичGrandson25.09.186918.07.1918
        52Grand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrand Duke Alexander MikhailovichGrandson13.04.186626.02.1933
        53Михаил Михайлович, Великий князьМихаил Михайлович, Великий князьGrandson16.10.186126.04.1929
        54Алексей МихайловичАлексей МихайловичGrandson28.12.187502.03.1895
        55Georgy  KonstantinovichGeorgy KonstantinovichGrandson23.04.190307.11.1938
        56Igor  ConstantinovichIgor ConstantinovichGrandson29.05.189418.07.1918
        57Oleg  KonstantinovichOleg KonstantinovichGrandson15.11.189229.09.1914
        58Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановGrandson01.06.186030.01.1919
        59Великий Князь Георгий МихайловичВеликий Князь Георгий МихайловичGrandson23.08.186330.01.1919
        60Великий князь Пётр НиколаевичВеликий князь Пётр НиколаевичGrandson10.01.186417.06.1931
        61Сергей  РомановСергей РомановGrandson11.05.185717.02.1905
        62Grand Duke Nicholas  Nikolaevich of RussiaGrand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of RussiaGrandson18.11.185605.01.1929
        63князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийGrandson29.02.185203.05.1912
        64Сергей АлександровичСергей АлександровичGrandson11.05.185717.02.1905
        65Евгений Лейхтенбергский РомановскийЕвгений Лейхтенбергский РомановскийGrandson27.01.184718.08.1901
        66Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичGrandson10.08.185802.06.1915
        67Николай КонстантиновичНиколай КонстантиновичGrandson14.02.185027.01.1918
        68Alexander IIIAlexander IIIGrandson10.03.184501.11.1894
        69Принц Николай ПетровичПринц Николай ПетровичGrandson09.05.184020.01.1886
        70Вера КонстантиновнаВера КонстантиновнаGranddaughter24.04.190611.01.2001
        71Анастасия МихайловнаАнастасия МихайловнаGranddaughter28.07.186011.03.1922
        72Maria AlexandrovnaMaria AlexandrovnaGranddaughter17.10.185324.10.1920
        73Olga  Constantinovna of RussiaOlga Constantinovna of RussiaGranddaughter03.09.185118.06.1926
        74Карл Фридрих Гольштейн-ГотторпскийКарл Фридрих Гольштейн-ГотторпскийGreat grandfather
        75Анна ПетровнаАнна ПетровнаGreat grandmother27.01.170804.03.1728
        76Prince Nicholas of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Nicholas of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson22.01.187208.02.1938
        77Boris  Wladimirowitsch RomanowBoris Wladimirowitsch RomanowGreat grandson24.11.187709.11.1943
        78Prince Nikita  Nikitich RomanovPrince Nikita Nikitich RomanovGreat grandson13.05.192303.05.2007
        79Nikolajs II RomanovsNikolajs II RomanovsGreat grandson19.05.186817.07.1918
        80Georg von MerenbergGeorg von MerenbergGreat grandson16.10.189711.01.1965
        81Князь Роман ПетровичКнязь Роман ПетровичGreat grandson17.10.189623.10.1978
        82Dmitri  PavlovichDmitri PavlovichGreat grandson06.09.189105.03.1942
        83Prince Andrew of  Greece and DenmarkPrince Andrew of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson02.02.188203.12.1944
        84Александр ИскандерАлександр ИскандерGreat grandson15.11.188726.01.1957
        85Mikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovMikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovGreat grandson04.12.187813.06.1918
        86Vladimir  PaleyVladimir PaleyGreat grandson09.01.189718.07.1918
        87Князь Никита АлександровичКнязь Никита АлександровичGreat grandson16.01.190012.09.1974
        88Князь Андрей АлександровичКнязь Андрей АлександровичGreat grandson24.01.189708.05.1981
        89Constantine I of GreeceConstantine I of GreeceGreat grandson02.08.186811.01.1923
        90Ростислав АлександровичРостислав АлександровичGreat grandson24.11.190231.07.1978
        91Князь Дмитрий АлександровичКнязь Дмитрий АлександровичGreat grandson15.08.190107.07.1980
        92Andrei  VladimirovichAndrei VladimirovichGreat grandson02.05.187930.10.1956
        93Prince AlfredPrince AlfredGreat grandson15.10.187406.02.1899
        94Prince Christopher  of Greece and DenmarkPrince Christopher of Greece and DenmarkGreat grandson10.08.188821.01.1940
        95Prince Vasili AlexandrovichPrince Vasili AlexandrovichGreat grandson07.07.190724.06.1989
        96Edward  VIIIEdward VIIIGreat grandson23.06.189428.05.1972
        97Кирилл ВладимировичКирилл ВладимировичGreat grandson12.10.187612.10.1938
        98Всеволод  РомановВсеволод РомановGreat grandson20.01.191418.06.1973
        99Дарья  БогарнэДарья БогарнэGreat grandson07.03.187005.11.1937
        100Ольга  РомановаОльга РомановаGreat granddaughter13.06.188224.11.1960
        101Марина  РомановаМарина РомановаGreat granddaughter11.03.189215.05.1981
        102Nadejda MountbattenNadejda MountbattenGreat granddaughter28.03.189622.01.1963
        103Grand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGrand Duchess Elena VladimirovnaGreat granddaughter17.03.188213.03.1957
        104Великая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаВеликая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаGreat granddaughter06.04.187520.04.1960
        105Grand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGrand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGreat granddaughter18.04.189013.12.1958
        106Anastasia de TorbyAnastasia de TorbyGreat granddaughter09.09.189207.12.1977
        107Cecilie  Mecklenburg Schwerin, DuchessCecilie Mecklenburg Schwerin, DuchessGreat granddaughter20.09.188606.05.1954
        108Alexandra  GeorgievnaAlexandra GeorgievnaGreat granddaughter30.08.187024.09.1891
        109Надежда  РомановаНадежда РомановаGreat granddaughter15.03.189821.04.1988
        110Natalia PaleyNatalia PaleyGreat granddaughter05.12.190527.12.1981
        111Irina Alexandrovna of RussiaIrina Alexandrovna of RussiaGreat granddaughter03.07.189526.02.1970
        112Marie of RomaniaMarie of RomaniaGreat granddaughter29.10.187518.07.1938
        113Елизавета ФёдоровнаЕлизавета ФёдоровнаGreat granddaughter01.11.186418.07.1918
        114Empress Alexandra  FeodorovnaEmpress Alexandra FeodorovnaGreat granddaughter06.06.187217.07.1918
        115Princess Maria of Greece and DenmarkPrincess Maria of Greece and DenmarkGreat granddaughter03.03.187614.12.1940
        116Princess Nina GeorgievnaPrincess Nina GeorgievnaGreat granddaughter20.06.190127.02.1974
        117Princess Xenia  Georgievna of RussiaPrincess Xenia Georgievna of RussiaGreat granddaughter22.08.190317.09.1965
        118Princess Catherine IvanovnaPrincess Catherine IvanovnaGreat granddaughter25.07.191513.03.2007
        119Княгиня Ксения  РомановаКнягиня Ксения РомановаDescendant10.03.191922.10.2000
        120князь Николай  Романовкнязь Николай РомановDescendant00.00.192215.09.2014
        121Дмитрий  РомановДмитрий РомановDescendant17.05.192631.12.2016
        122Alexander  Württemberg, DukeAlexander Württemberg, DukeCousin09.09.180404.07.1885
        123Duchess Maria DorotheaDuchess Maria DorotheaCousin01.11.179730.03.1855

        14.12.1825 | Dekabristu dumpis

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        29.11.1830 | November Uprising

        The November Uprising (1830–31), Polish–Russian War 1830–31 also known as the Cadet Revolution, was an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire. The uprising began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw when the young Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress Poland's military academy revolted, led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki. They were soon joined by large segments of Polish society, and the insurrection spread to the territories of Lithuania, western Belarus, and the right-bank of Ukraine. Despite some local successes, the uprising was eventually crushed by a numerically superior Imperial Russian Army under Ivan Paskevich. Czar Nicholas I decreed that henceforth Poland was an integral part of Russia, with Warsaw little more than a military garrison, its university closed.

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        26.02.1832 | Konstytucja Królestwa Polskiego została zastąpiona Statutem Organicznym dla Królestwa Polskiego

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        18.12.1833 | Pirmo reizi izpildīta Krievijas valsts himna "Dievs, caru sargā!"

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        31.05.1851 | Krievijas imperators Nikolajs I inspicē Dinaburgas cietoksni

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        28.03.1854 | Turpinās Krimas karš. Osmaņu impērijas pusē karā iesaistās Anglija un Francija

        Krimas karu pret Osmaņu impēriju Krievija iesāka 1853. gada oktobrī. Kara iesākšanas iegansts Krievija bija "ortodoksālo kristiešu aizsardzība". Karš ilga trīs gadus, līdz 1856. gada februārim. Kara rezultātā Krievija ieguva Krimas pussalu, bet zaudēja savus iepriekšējos sabiedrotos- kopš 1815. gada Vīnes kongresa laikiem- Franciju, Lielbritāniju, Sardīniju.

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        15.12.1862 | Saint Petersburg – Warsaw Railway lounched

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