Maximilian de Beauharnais

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Максимилиан Лейхтенбергский, нем. Maximilian Joseph Eugène Auguste Napoléon de Beauharnais Herzog von Leuchtenberg фр. Maximilien Joseph Eugène Auguste Napoléon duc de Leuchtenberg, Maximilian Joseph Eugène Auguste Nap
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Maximilian Joseph Eugene Auguste Napoleon de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg (2 October 1817 Munich – 1 November 1852 St.Petersburg), was the husband of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon III of the French and Francis Joseph I of Austria. He was a grandson of Napoleon I's first wife, the Empress Josephine, by her prior marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais.


He was born as the second son of Eugène de Beauharnais and Princess Augusta Amalia Ludovika Georgia of Bavaria. His maternal grandparents were Maximilian I, King of Bavaria and his first wife Marie Wilhelmine Auguste, Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt.

His maternal grandmother Marie Wilhelmine Auguste was a daughter of Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt, younger son of Louis VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt.

He was a brother of:

  • Auguste de Beauharnais, Duke of Santa Cruz, Consort prince of Queen Maria II of Portugal;
  • Amélie de Beauharnais, Empress consort of Pedro I of Brazil;
  • Josephine of Leuchtenberg, queen consort of Oscar I of Sweden.

Duke of Leuchtenberg

His maternal grandfather Maximilian of Bavaria appointed Eugène de Beauharnais, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg on 14 November 1817. The title came with the effective administration of the Principality of Eichstätt. Maximilian was named "Prince of Leuchtenburg" and became the second-in-line heir to the Duchy.

On 21 February 1824, his father died and his older brother became Auguste de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg. His brother was yet childless and Maximilian became his Heir Presumptive.

Auguste eventually married Queen Maria II of Portugal but died childless on 28 March 1835. Maximilian became the 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg at this point.


He married Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia on July 2, 1839 in the chapel of the Winter Palace. She was the eldest daughter of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia.

His father-in-law Nicholas I granted to him on 14 July 1839 the Russian and Finnish style Imperial Highness, a rank he was entitled to as a descendant of the extended dynasty of Napoleon I of France. His father was an adoptive son of Napoleon.


  1. Princess Alexandra Maximilianovna (1840–1843) died in childhood
  2. Princess Maria Maximilianovna (1841–1914) m. Prince Wilhelm of Baden (1829–1897), younger son of Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden
  3. Nicholas Maximilianovich, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1843–1891) m. Nadezhda Annenkova (1840-1891)
  4. Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna (1845–1925) m. Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg (1844–1932)
  5. Eugen Maximilianovich, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1847–1901) m. Daria Opotchinina (1845–1870) m. Zinaida Skobeleva (1856–1899)
  6. Prince Sergei Maximilianovich (1849–1877) Killed in the Russo-Turkish war
  7. Georgi Maximilianovich, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1852–1912) m.(1) Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg (1852–1883) m.(2) Anastasia of Montenegro (1868–1935)

Further descendants

Through his oldest surviving daughter Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg (1841–1914), he is the grandfather of Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929), Chancellor of Germany during World War I.

His youngest daughter Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg (1845–1925) married Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg (1844–1932), the grandson of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia, and became the mother of Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg (1868–1924), the divorced husband of Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia (1882–1960), the youngest sister of Nicholas II of Russia.


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        Relation nameRelation typeBirth DateDeath dateDescription
        1Eugène de  BeauharnaisEugène de BeauharnaisFather03.09.178121.02.1824
        2Августа Амалия БаварскаяАвгуста Амалия БаварскаяMother21.06.178813.05.1851
        3князь Георгий Максимилианович Романовскийкнязь Георгий Максимилианович РомановскийSon29.02.185203.05.1912
        4Grand Duchess Maria  Nikolaevna of RussiaGrand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of RussiaWife18.08.181921.02.1876
        5Ludwig I  of BavariaLudwig I of BavariaUncle25.08.178629.02.1868
        6Nicholas I of RussiaNicholas I of RussiaFather in-law06.07.179618.02.1855
        7Александра ФёдоровнаАлександра ФёдоровнаMother in-law13.07.179801.11.1860
        8Анастасия ЧерногорскаяАнастасия ЧерногорскаяDaughter in-law23.12.186825.11.1935
        9Тереза ОльденбургскаяТереза ОльденбургскаяDaughter in-law30.03.185219.04.1883
        10Olga  Constantinovna of RussiaOlga Constantinovna of RussiaSister in-law03.09.185118.06.1926
        11Olga  NikolaevnaOlga NikolaevnaSister in-law11.09.182230.10.1892
        12Николай СтаршийНиколай СтаршийBrother in-law27.07.183113.04.1891
        13Константин КонстантиновичКонстантин КонстантиновичBrother in-law10.08.185802.06.1915
        14Alexander IIAlexander IIBrother in-law29.04.181813.03.1881
        15Konstantin NikolayevichKonstantin NikolayevichBrother in-law21.09.182725.01.1892
        16Николай КонстантиновичНиколай КонстантиновичBrother in-law14.02.185027.01.1918
        17Дмитрий Константинович РомановДмитрий Константинович РомановBrother in-law01.06.186030.01.1919
        18Максимилиан IМаксимилиан IGrandfather27.05.175613.10.1825
        19Alexandre de BeauharnaisAlexandre de BeauharnaisGrandfather28.05.176023.07.1794
        20Августа Вильгельмина Мария Гессен-ДармштадтскаяАвгуста Вильгельмина Мария Гессен-ДармштадтскаяGrandmother14.04.176530.03.1796
        21Joséphine de  BeauharnaisJoséphine de BeauharnaisGrandmother23.06.176329.05.1814
        22Кирилл ВладимировичКирилл ВладимировичGrandson12.10.187612.10.1938
        23Vladimir  PaleyVladimir PaleyGrandson09.01.189718.07.1918
        24Andrei  VladimirovichAndrei VladimirovichGrandson02.05.187930.10.1956
        25Mikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovMikhail Aleksandrovich RomanovGrandson04.12.187813.06.1918
        26Boris  Wladimirowitsch RomanowBoris Wladimirowitsch RomanowGrandson24.11.187709.11.1943
        27Nikolajs II RomanovsNikolajs II RomanovsGrandson19.05.186817.07.1918
        28Великая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаВеликая княгиня Ксения АлександровнаGranddaughter06.04.187520.04.1960
        29Natalia PaleyNatalia PaleyGranddaughter05.12.190527.12.1981
        30Grand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGrand Duchess Maria PavlovnaGranddaughter18.04.189013.12.1958
        31Ольга  РомановаОльга РомановаGranddaughter13.06.188224.11.1960
        32Ростислав АлександровичРостислав АлександровичGreat grandson24.11.190231.07.1978
        33Князь Дмитрий АлександровичКнязь Дмитрий АлександровичGreat grandson15.08.190107.07.1980
        34Vladimir  RomanovVladimir RomanovGreat grandson30.08.191721.04.1992
        35Князь Андрей АлександровичКнязь Андрей АлександровичGreat grandson24.01.189708.05.1981
        36Князь Никита АлександровичКнязь Никита АлександровичGreat grandson16.01.190012.09.1974
        37Prince George Duke of KentPrince George Duke of KentGreat grandson20.12.190225.08.1942
        38Prince Vasili AlexandrovichPrince Vasili AlexandrovichGreat grandson07.07.190724.06.1989
        39Edward  VIIIEdward VIIIGreat grandson23.06.189428.05.1972
        40George VIGeorge VIGreat grandson14.12.189506.02.1952
        41George BrasovGeorge BrasovGreat grandson06.08.191021.07.1931
        42Prince Nikita  Nikitich RomanovPrince Nikita Nikitich RomanovGreat grandson13.05.192303.05.2007
        43Princess Elizabeth of  Greece and DenmarkPrincess Elizabeth of Greece and DenmarkGreat granddaughter24.05.190411.01.1955
        44Irina Alexandrovna of RussiaIrina Alexandrovna of RussiaGreat granddaughter03.07.189526.02.1970
        45Princess Marina  of Greece and DenmarkPrincess Marina of Greece and DenmarkGreat granddaughter13.12.190627.08.1968
        46Anastasia RomanovaAnastasia RomanovaGreat granddaughter18.06.190117.07.1918
        47Prince AdalbertPrince AdalbertCousin19.07.182821.09.1875
        48Матильда Каролина БаварскаяМатильда Каролина БаварскаяCousin30.08.181325.05.1862
        49Therese of Saxe-HildburghausenTherese of Saxe-HildburghausenDistant relative08.07.179226.10.1854

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