Latvia Independence battles. Victory over the West Russian Volunteer Army in Riga
On November 11 every year, Latvia lights up numerous candles to commemorate the Latvian army's victory over the West Russian Volunteer Army led by general Pavel Bermont-Avalov on November 11, 1919. On this day Latvia honours Latvian Freedom Fighters.
The Latvian War of Independence, sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the Republic of Latvia proclaimed its independence in 18.11.1918, and the signing of the Treaty of Riga between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR on August 11, 1920.
The war involved Latvia (its provisional government was supported by Estonia,Poland, and the Western Allies, particularly the United Kingdom) against the Russian SFSR and the Bolsheviks' short-lived Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic.
Germany and the Baltic nobility added a new level of intrigue, initially being nominally allied to the Nationalist/Allied force, but attempting to jockey for German domination of Latvia. Eventually, the tensions flared up after a German coup against the Latvian government and led to open war.
Following a ceasefire, the Germans developed a ploy, nominally dissolving into the West Russian Volunteer Army led by general Pavel Bermont-Avalov. The West Russian Volunteer Army included Germans and former Russian prisoners of war nominally allied with the White Army in the Russian Civil War, but both Bermondt-Avalov and von der Goltz were more interested in eliminating the nationalists than fighting the Bolsheviks. Certain episodes of the Latvian Independence War are therefore also considered by Polish historians to be a part of the Polish-Soviet War(particularly the Battle of Daugavpils).
- 18 November: Republic of Latvia is proclaimed in Riga.
- 28 November: The Regency Council of the United Baltic Duchy dissolved.
- 1 December: The Red Army invades Latvia.
- 17 December: The government of Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic, headed by Pēteris Stučka, is formed in Russia.
- 5 January: The first armed unit of Latvia, 1st Latvian Independent Battalion, under command of Oskars Kalpaks is formed. The provisional government retreats from Jelgava to Liepāja.
- 31 January: Most of Latvia is under the control of the Red Army, the Latvian government and German forces control the neighbourhood of Liepāja.
- 18 February: Agreement is signed between Estonia and Latvia, starting formation of North Latvian Brigade led by Jorģis Zemitāns on Estonian territory.
- 3 March: United German and Latvian forces commence counterattack against the forces of Soviet Latvia.
- 6 March: Oskars Kalpaks, commander of all Latvian forces subordinated to German Headquarters falls from German friendly fire. He is replaced by Jānis Balodis.
- 10 March: Saldus comes under Latvian control.
- 21 March: 1st Latvian Independent Battalion is reformed into the Latvian Independent Brigade.
- 16 April: The puppet Latvian Government established by the Baltic nobility organises acoup d'etat in Liepāja, the provisional national government of Latvia takes refuge aboard steamship Saratow.
- 16 May: Estonian Army starts major offensive against Soviets in North-Latvia.
- 22 May: The Baltische Landeswehr captures Riga.
- 23 May: The Latvian Independent Brigade marches into Riga.
- 3 June: The Baltische Landeswehr reaches Cēsis.
- 6 June: The Landeswehr's North Latvian campaign begins, commanded by Major Alfred Fletcher and opposed by the Estonian 3rd Division commanded by General Ernst Põdderincluding the 2nd Latvian Cēsis regiment of North Latvian Brigade.
- 23 June: The Estonian force defeats the Landeswehr.
- 3 July: Estonia, Latvia and the pro-German Provisional Government of Latvia sign the Ceasefire of Strazdumuiža.
- 6 July: The North Latvian Brigade enters Riga.
- 5 October: The German mission secretly leaves Riga for Jelgava, where an attack is prepared by the German-established West Russian Volunteer Army on Riga.
- 8 October: The West Russian Volunteer Army attacks Riga, taking the Pārdaugava district.
- 3 November: The Latvian Army supported by the Estonian armoured trains and the Royal Navy launches its counterattack.
- 11 November: The Latvian Army supported by the Estonian armoured trains and the Royal Navy defeats the West Russian Volunteer Army in Riga.
- 22 November: The Lithuanian Army defeats the remnants of West Russian Volunteer Army in Lithuania near Radviliškis.
- 25 November: Due Germany declares West Russian Volunteer Army as its military forces, Latvia declares war to Germany (Weimar Republic at this moment) and in state of war is untill 15/7/1920
- 3 December Latvian government declares end of any offensive actions against West Russian Volunteer Army in Lithuania
Video: 2 hours of names of those fallen in Latvia Independence War
- 3 January: United forces of Latvia and Poland launch attack on Bolsheviks in Latgale and take Daugavpils.
- 13 January: Government of the Latvian SSR resigns.
- 1 February: Latvia signs ceasefire with Russia.
- 17–18 April: Election of Constitutional Assembly of Latvia.
- 1 May: First session of Constitutional Assembly.
- 15 July: Latvia signs ceasefire with Germany.
- 11 August: Latvian-Soviet Riga Peace Treaty is signed.
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