Federal Reserve System
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907.
Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded, and its structure has evolved.
Events such as the Great Depression in the 1930s were major factors leading to changes in the system.
The U.S. Congress established three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: Maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
The first two objectives are sometimes referred to as the Federal Reserve's dual mandate.
Its duties have expanded over the years, and today, according to official Federal Reserve documentation, include conducting the nation'smonetary policy, supervising and regulating banking institutions, maintaining the stability of the financial system and providing financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions.
The Fed also conducts research into the economy and releases numerous publications, such as the Beige Book.
The Federal Reserve System's structure is composed of the presidentially appointed Board of Governors (or Federal Reserve Board), the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks located in major cities throughout the nation, numerous privately owned U.S. member banks and various advisory councils.
Sources: wikipedia.org, news.lv
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